Azure Active Directory resembles on-premise active directory, but with the focus on linking single sign-on with SaaS applications.
Azure Active Directory Basic is the step up from Azure Active Directory Free which is included with all Business Licenses. There is Active Directory sync but this license is more on a focus of cloud only users.
For additional information on features click here.
Non-Profit Plans for Enterprise
Qualified nonprofits can receive Office 365 Nonprofit as a donation or upgrade to advanced features at a significant discount. To qualify for any of the Enterprise or Office 365 Nonprofit plans, you must hold recognized charitable status in your country and sign Microsoft’s non-discrimination policy. Microsoft reserves the right to verify eligibility at any time and to suspend the service for ineligible organizations.
To find out if your organization is eligible, please click on Eligibility
Organizations must be recognized by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) as exempt from federal income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code (IRC).
Public libraries may qualify as an eligible nonprofit organization without charitable status only for on-premises software donations and only where such software is made accessible to the general public. Please visit the Microsoft Volume Licensing website for more information about licensing programs for public library operations.
For a full regional support of Microsoft's non-profit guidelines please visit the Full Non-Profit and Donations Guidelines page.
Government Plans for Enterprise
For a more in depth understanding of the Government offerings associated with Microsoft 365 Enterprise level Plans, First Line plans, and overall view of the GCC features available to your organization please review the following document: